Periodontal or gum disease is a pathological inflammatory condition of the gum and bone support (periodontal tissues) surrounding the teeth. If left untreated, it may result in tooth loss. It occurs in both chronic and acute forms. Acute periodontal disease is usually associated with specific infections, micro-organisms, or trauma.
The chronic inflammation of the soft gum tissue surrounding the teeth is associated with the bacterial plaque, which covers the teeth and gums. This condition is termed gingivitis, which is characterized by redness of the gum margins, swelling and bleeding on brushing.
Some common causes of Periodontal/Gum disease are:
- Diabetes and underlying medical issues
- Tobacco use
- Chronic stress and poor diet
- Poor dental hygiene
- Pregnancy and menopause